Sunday, March 25, 2007

Synoptic Gospels of Jesus

According to the list occurring in each of the Synoptic Gospels (Mark 3:13-19, Matthew 10:1-4, Luke 6:12-16), the Twelve chosen by Jesus near the beginning of his ministry, those whom also He named Apostles, were:
Simon: called Peter (Grk. petros, petra; Aram. kef; Engl. rock) by Jesus, also known as Simon bar Jonah and Simon bar Jochanan (Aram.) and earlier (Pauline Epistles were written first) Cephas (Aram.) by Paul of Tarsus and Simon Peter, a fisherman from Bethsaida "of Galilee" (John 1:44; cf. 12:21)
Andrew: brother of Peter, a Bethsaida fisherman and disciple of John the Baptist, and also the First-Called Apostle
James and John: sons of Zebedee, called by Jesus Boanerges (an Aramaic name explained in Mk 3:17 as "Sons of Thunder")
Philip: from Bethsaida "of Galilee" (John 1:44, 12:21)
Bartholomew: in Aramaic "bar-Talemai?", "son of Talemai" or from Ptolemais, some identify with Nathanael
Thomas: also known as Judas Thomas Didymus - Aramaic T'oma' = twin, and Greek Didymous = twin
James: commonly identified with James the Less and sometimes with James, brother of Jesus
Matthew: the tax collector, some identify with Levi son of Alphaeus
Simon the Canaanite: called in Luke and Acts "Simon the Zealot", some identify with Simeon of Jerusalem
Judas Iscariot: the name Iscariot may refer to the Judaean towns of Kerioth or to the sicarii (Jewish nationalist insurrectionists), or to Issachar;
He was replaced as an apostle in Acts by Matthias
The identity of the other apostle of the twelve, traditionally called St. Jude, varies between the Synoptic Gospels and also between ancient manuscripts of each gospel:
Mark names him as Thaddaeus
Some manuscripts of Matthew also identify him as Thaddeus
Some manuscripts of Matthew name him as Lebbaeus
Some manuscripts of Matthew name him as Judas the Zealot
Luke names him as Judas, son of James or in the KJV: "Judas the brother of James" Luke 6:16
The Gospel of John, unlike the Synoptic Gospels, does not offer a formal list of apostles, but does refer to the Twelve in 6:67, 6:70, and 6:71. The following nine apostles are identified by name:
Andrew (identified as Peter's brother)
the sons of Zebedee (plural form implies at least two apostles)
Thomas (also called Didymus (11:16, 20:24, 21:2))
Judas Iscariot
Judas (not Iscariot) (14:22)

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